Cultural Model

  1. Philosophy of Science
  2. Educational Theory
  3. Terms
  4. Current Practice

Work Models

  1. Flow Model
  2. Sequence Model
  3. Artifact Model
  4. Cultural Model
  5. Physical Model
  6. Metaphors


  1. Design Problem
  2. Literature Review
  3. Work Models
  4. Design Patterns
  5. Design Experiments
  6. Lesson Ideas
  7. Montessori Computes
  8. Thinking About Circles

Related Links

Patterns and Design


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Under Construction I am not very organized or methodical in my reading. Web pages seem like a good way to keep track of the various threads I'm pursuing so I can find my way back to the main one--I'm trying to understand the context in which Montessori worked, so I can better understand what she wrote and where she got her ideas. To keep track of my reading, I write down quotes I find interesting and add thoughts in brackets as they occur to me. My goal is to one day have more notes than quotes on these pages, and maybe even develop something coherent and interesting. Until then, the "under construction" icon will remain as a warning for those who might mistakenly think there's something readable on these pages.


"Absolute transcendental realism has been developed by Guido Della Valle (Naples, 1884, still living), in the volumes Le leggi del lavoro mentale (The Laws of Mental Work, 1911), and Teoria generale e formale del valore come fondamento di una pedagogica filosofica (A general and formal Theory of Value as the basis of a philosophical Pedagogy, 1916). According to Della Valle the idea "Education" is simply a particular, empirical case of the acquisition of Values which is realized at any age in either sex or in any social activity. The school is a small fragment of life and cannot be considered by itself. Theoretical and practical human life always seeks to obtain Values of knowledge by means of the senses (existential Values or Realities), or by means of the mind (logical Values or Truths); values of feeling (= aesthetic values = Beauty); Values of will or volitional Values with reference to the subject (= moral values = Goodness); Values of will with reference to the object (= economic values = Wealth). The Values are absolute, universal, transcending the individual ego, reciprocally incommensurable. They constitute normative ends and are obtainable only by means of mental work variably qualified. Traditional pedagogy is a particular empirical application of the "Theory of Efficiency," divided into (a) "The Experimental Science of Mental Work," to which belongs the experimental pedagogy which indicates educational mediums; (b) "The Speculative Theory of Values," from which is derived the philosophic pedgagogy that investigates which values should be chosen as Ends.

G. D. V."

(Watson, 1921, p. 899)