Books on Montessori Theory and Practice
There are a number of free, searchable books on the internet by and about Montessori. For books you can hold in your hand, see my Book Recommendations.
Online Books by Montessori
- The Montessori Method, 1912. This book is required reading for students preparing teach Montessori at any age.
- Pedagogical Anthropology, 1913. This was actually written before The Montessori Method. It was translated into English and published in the United States after Montessori's method became popular here. In Italy, early pedagogical studies were based on anthropology rather than psychology. This work reflects the anthropometry and scientific racism that were rampant in anthropology at the time. As anthropology matured and Montessori gained experience with children all over the world, her views changed. Montessori was an Italian delegate to UNESCO in 1950 when UNESCO issued their well known statement on The Race Question and had made statements of her own reflecting her revised views on the subject. In The Mismeasure of Man, Stephen Jay Gould presents a thorough discussion of the history of misconceptions regarding human measurement, including brief discussions of Montessori's early ideas on pages 139 and 152. Unfortunately, he only sites the views Montessori expressed in Pedagogical Anthropology and not those she expressed later in life. Pedagogical Anthropology is not a part of standard Montessori training or recommended reading. As a result, most Montessorians are not familiar with this part of Montessori's early thinking. Present day Montessorians support Gould's take on human measurement. Montessorians familiar with this early work would probably argue that Montessori's views later in life were much closer to Gould's than the ones expressed in Pedagogical Anthropology.
- Dr. Montessori's Own Handbook, 1914.
- Spontaneous Activity in Education, 1917. Most recently published as the first volume of The Advanced Montessori Method.
- The Advanced Montessori Method: The Elementary Material, 1917. Most recently published as the second volume of The Advanced Montessori method.
Online Books About Montessori
Here are some of the Progressive Era books about Montessori that are available for free online.
- A Montessori Mother, by Dorothy Canfield Fisher, 1912.
- The Montessori Principles and Practice, by E.P. Culverwell, M.A., 1913.
- The Montessori System in Theory and Practice, by Theodate Louise Smith, 1912.
- The Montessori Manual, by Dorothy Canfield Fisher, 1913.
- A Guide to the Montessori Method, by Ellen Yale Stevens, 1913.
- The Montessori Method and the American School, by Florence Elizabeth Ward, 1913.
- The Montessori System Examined, by William Heard Kilpatrick, 1914. Best-known critique of the Montessori Method.
- The Kindergarten and the Montessori Method: An Attempt at Synthesis, by Martha MacLear, A. M., 1915. In his introduction to The Montessori Method, Henry Wyman Holmes fourd that the Montessori Method and Froebel's kindergarten approach were "not antagonistic". Looks like somebody else thought so, too. Introduction by G. Stanley Hall. For a comparison of Montessori and Froebel from a true Montessori devotee, see "Part Five: Montessori and Froebel" in Maria Montessori: Her Life and Work, by E.M. Standing.
- The New Children: Talks with Dr. Maria Montessori, Sheila Jamieson Radice, 1920. "When I began writing these articles Dr. Montessori and M. Bergson were unacquainted with one another. About the middle of October, 1919, I had the pleasure of meeting Dr. Crichton-Miller. Before we parted he said a few words which confirmed something that had been in my own mind for a long time. 'This method,' he said, 'will have to be considered in connection with the philosophy of Bergson and the psychoanalytical work of Jung.' These three, in fact, he thought, were mining in apparent independence of one another towards an identical point.", p. 92
Related Online Books and Sites
Here are free online books that give background on the intellectual scene in Europe during the early years of Montessori's career.
- History of Philosophy, Frederick Copleston, 1999. Discusses Spencer, Bosanquet, James, Dewey and others.
- From Natural Philosophy to the Sciences, David Cahan, 2003
- The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, Volume 9, Christa Knellwolf, Christopher Norris. See Chapter 25, Italian Idealism, starting on page 335.
- A Cyclopedia of Education, Volume 3, Paul Monroe, 1912. Some interesting stuff on Herbart and the science of education in here.
- The Science of Education, Johann Friedrich Herbart, Oscar Browning, 1893
- Radical Empiricism and Wundt's Philosophy, Charles Judd, 1905 (pages 169-176 of The journal of philosophy, psychology and scientific methods, Volume 6)
- The Educational Theories of Herbart and Froebel, Issue 4, John Angus MacVannel, 1906
- The Aims and Achievements of Scientific Method, Thomas Percy Nunn, 1907
- Herbart and Froebel: an attempt at synthesis, Pervcival Richard Cole, 1907
- Creative Evolution, Henri Bergson, Arthur Mitchell, 1913
- The Psychology of Auto-Education: Based on the Interpretation of Intellect Given by Henri Bergson in his "Creative Evolution." Illustrated in the Work of Maria Montessori, Harriet Hunt, 1912
- Development of the Perceptual World, Charles Solley, Gardner Murphy, 2006. Includes discussion of Wundt, Weber, Fechner and Herbart.
- Principles of physiological psychology, Volume 1, Wilhelm Max Wundt, Edward Bradford Titchener, 1904
- Modern Philosophy, Guido de Ruggiero, 1921
- Modern Italy: Its Intellectual, Cultural and Financial Aspects, Tommaso Tittoni, 1912
- The Problem of Knowledge, Douglas Clyde Macintosh, 1915.
- Analytical Psychology, Carl Gustav Jung, 1916. Jung mentions horme and relates it to Bergson's elan vitale on pages 348 and 349.
- Education: Its Data and First Principles, Thomas Percy Nunn, 1920
- Development and Purpose: an Essay Towards a Philosophy of Evolution, Leonard Trelawney Hobhouse, 1927
- Modern Italian Social Theory: Ideology and Politics from Pareto to the Present, Richard Bellamy, 1987
- Continental Philosophy, Richard Kearney. See Chapter 10: Italian idealism and after Gentile, Croce and others, Giacomo Rinaldi
- The Pinocchio Effect: On Making Italians, 1860-1920, Suzanne Stewart-Steinberg, 2008
- Works on Economics and Social Welfare, Helen and Bernard Bosanquet, 1996. Idealist writings from the 1920s and 1930s.
- Sociology Theory, Bert Adams, Rosalind Sydie, 2001
- Classical Sociology Theory, Bert Adams, Rosalind Sydie, 2002
- Benedetto Croce: an introduction to his philosophy, Raffaello Piccoli, 1922
- The Reform of Education, Giovanni Gentile, 1922. Gentile's "Actual Idealism" is contrasted with Hegel's "Absolute Idealism" and Kant's "Transcendental Idealism" and served as the philosophical foundation of Mussolini's Facism.
- The Philosophy of Giovanni Gentile, Pasquale Romanelli, 2006
- Introduction to Modern Philosophy, C. G. M. Joad, 1924
- Herbert Spencer inspired much of Italian positivist thought.
- Recent Discussions in Science, Philosophy and Morals, Herbert Spencer, 2006 (includes "Reasons for dissenting from the philosophy of M. Comte")
- Cesare Lombroso, a Modern Man of Science, by Hans Kurelia, 1911
- Antonio Labriola was the leading historical materialist in Italy around the turn of the twentieth century.
- Socialism and Philosophy, Antonio Labriola, 1912
- Historical Materialism and the Economics of Karl Marx, Benedetto Croce, 1914 (Croce was a fan of historical materialism for a time)
- History, its Theory and Practice, Part 13, Benedetto Croce, 1921
- Pasquale Galluppi, Elements of Philosophy, 1846
- Antonio Rosmini, A Sketch of Modern Philosophy, 1881
- Vincenzo Gioberti, Introduction to the Study of Philosophy, I.4, ‘The Ideal Formula’
- Gioberti, The Moral and Political Primacy of the Italians II.2, ‘Italy is the Leader in the Philosophical Sciences,’ 1843
- Terenzio Mamiani, The Renewal of the Ancestral Italian Philosophy, 1836
- Bertrando Spaventa, The Character and Development of Italian Philosophy from the Sixteenth Century Until Our Time, 1860
- Francesco Fiorentino, Letters to Contessa Waddington
- Francesco De Sanctis, 'The Principle of Realism,' 1876
- Pasquale Villari, Positive Philosophy and Historical Method, 1866
- Antonio Labriola, 'History, Philosophy of History, Sociology and Historical Materialism,' 1902-3
- Benedetto Croce, History Brought Under the General Concept of Art, 1893
- Croce, What is Living and What is Dead in the Philosophy of Hegel? 1906
- Croce, 'On the Theory of Distinction and of the Four Spiritual Categories,' 1946
- Giovanni Gentile, 'The Philosophy of Praxis,' 1899
- Gentile, 'The Renaissance of Idealism,' 1903
- Gentile, 'The Idea of Thinking as Pure Act,' 1911
- 'Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals,' 1924
- 'Manifesto of the Anti-Fascist Intellectuals: A Reply by Italian Authors, Professors and Journalists to the Manifesto of the Fascist Intellectuals,' 1924
Books by or about Dewey
Books on Educational Research
Links to Montessori Stuff
Below is a list of all the sites included in the search engine behind the "Get Montessori Stuff" search box
- Nienhuis, All the official Montessori materials, book by and about Montessori, and other educational products
- Kaybee Montessori, LLC, U.S. distributor of materials and furniture manufactured in India and materials from Gonzagarredi. Their flagship product is their Bohemian glass beads.
- Matsumoto Kagaku Kogyo
- Conceptual Learning, Math products designed by experienced Montessori teacher
- Montessori Research & Development, Materials and manuals
- Montessori Services
- Primary Concepts
- Montessori Material Makers
- Albanesi Montessori, Official site of the Albanesi Educational Center
- Alison's Montessori & Educational Materials
- Bambini Montessori
- Bruins Montessori
- Cabdev Montessori supplier in Canada for Gonzagarredi
- Caliber Montessori Supplies
- Early School Materials
- Edu Aids
- Great Extensions, All kinds of Montessori related stamps
- Green Tree Montessori
- i-Learning Techniques
- IFIT Wooden Toy Supplier
- In-Print for Children
- Joyful Noise Publications
- Juliana Group supplier in US for Gonzagarredi
- Hands on Equations, Algebra for grades 3-8
- Heart in Hand, Color pictures that need to be mounted and laminated
- Kaidy Educational Resources
- Kid Advance Montessori
- Kido Enterprises
- Laughing Star Montessori, Photo cards, maps, woodworking
- Little Red Robin, Materials for Infant and toddler
- Livable Learning, Features free printable Montessori materials
- Maitri Learning, Montessori books and card materials
- The Materials Company of Boston, Materials for Primary
- Montessori 'N Such
- Montessori Concepts
- Montessori Educational Software
- Montessori for Everyone, Free downloads
- Montessori Images, Language materials
- Montessori Land
- Montessori Lessons, Mostly nomenclature cards
- Montessori Print Shop, Purchase printed cards or PDF files
- Montessori Materials, Printable materials and lessons
- Montessori Outlet, Bert Nienhuis (former Nienhuis Montessori CEO) is Corporate Advisor and Director of this low-cost provider of materials
- Montessori Reading, Reading program for 4-6 year olds
- Montessori Stores
- The Montessori Workshop
- My Montessori House, Includes lessons in Chinese and bilingual English/Chinese materials
- New Child Montessori, Site includes sections on Montessori Art and Yoga Command Cards
- Parthenon Graphics Timelines, Montessori style timelines recommended by the History Channel
- Perrytech Montessori, supplier in Canada for Gonzagarredi
- PictureWord-Books, Language and cultural subjects
- Priority Montessori, Montessori science materials
- Waseca Learning Environment, Material developed at Waseca Learning Environment in Athens, Georgia
- Widening Horizons Montessori Material
- The Montessori Great Lesson Page from Barbara Dubinsky
It's exciting to see the high quality of some of the Montessori research that's come out in recent years. Below are my favorites. Most of them are available for free online from anywhere. If any links lead you a site that tries to charge you for an article, you can probably still get the article for free by going online at a local university and accessing the article through the university library's system.
- Montessori Education Provides Better Outcomes Than Traditional Education, Study Finds
- Montessori: The Science Behind the Genius, Chapter 1, by Angeline Lillard
- A Comparison of Montessori and Traditional Middle Schools: Motivation, Quality of Experience, and Social Context, by Kevin Rathunde, The NAMTA Journal Vol. 28, No. 3, Summer 2003
- Montessori and Optimal Experience Research: Toward Building A Comprehensive Education Reform, by David Kahn, The NAMTA Journal Vol. 28, No. 3, Summer 2003
- Montessori and Optimal Experience: A Framework for New Research, by Kevin Rathunde, The NAMTA Journal Vol. 26, No. 1, Summer 2001
- Montessori's Mediation of Meaning: a Social Semiotic Perspective, by Susan M. Feez. Dissertation, University of Sidney. Date Accessed: 7/27/2008 4:28 PM
- Montessori and the Mainstream: A Century of Reform on the Margins, by Keith Whitescarver and Jacqueline Cossentino, Teachers College Record Volume 110 Number 12, 2008, p. -
http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 14765, Date Accessed: 7/27/2008 4:58:08 PM
- Ritualizing Expertise: A Non-Montessorian View of the Montessori Method, by Jacqueline Cossentino, American Journal of Education 111 (February 2005), http://www.journals.uchicago.edu, Date Accessed: 7/27/2008 4:13 PM
- Big Work: Goodness, Vocation, and Engagement in the Montessori Method, by Jacqueline Cossentino,Curriculum Inquiry36:1, 2006, 63-92
- Science, Feminism and Education: The Early Work of Maria Montessori, by Babini and Morgan, History Workshop Journal, (49), 44-67, 2000. Retrieved July 8, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4289658.
- Science and Culture Around the Montessori's First "Children's Houses" in Rome (1907-1915), by R. Foschi. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 2008. Published online in Wiley Interscience, 44(3), 238-257. doi: 10.1002/jhbs.30313.
General Education Links